Rainwater Harvesting System
WATER SCARCITY IN INDIA
Water scarcity in India is an ongoing water crisis that affects nearly hundreds of millions of people each year. In addition to affecting the huge rural and urban population, the water scarcity in India also extensively affects the ecosystem and agriculture. India has only 4% of the world’s fresh water resources despite a population of over 1.3 billion people. In addition to the disproportionate availability of freshwater, water scarcity in India also results from drying up of rivers and their reservoirs in the summer months, right before the onset of the monsoons throughout the country. The crisis has especially worsened in recent years due to climate change which results in delayed monsoons, consequently drying out reservoirs in several regions.
Other factors attributed to the shortage of water in India are a lack of proper infrastructure and government oversight and unchecked water pollution.
The acute shortage of water for daily needs has prompted many government and non government organizations to take stringent measures to combat the problem. The Government of India has launched multiple schemes and programs, including the formation buck of an entire ‘Jal Shakti’ Ministry to deal with the problem. The government has also insisted on techniques such as rainwater harvesting, water conservation and more efficient irrigation. Agriculture alone is responsible for 80% of the country’s water usage.
Several large cities of India have experienced water shortages in recent years, with Chennai being the most prominent in 2019. The shortage of water affected the entire city of 9 million people and resulted in the closure of several hotels, restaurants and businesses. According to a report by the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog), at least 21 major Indian cities, including the capital New Delhi will completely run out of groundwater by 2020. The report also noted that approximately 200,000 people die in India each year due to the lack of access to safe drinking water
In such a scenario, there is a huge market for a social and commercial service and product. This is the reason for the significant scope of RAINWATER HARVESTING and a rainwater harvesting company like JB Rainwater Harvesting.
8 Principles Of Successful Rainwater Harvesting System
1. Be a root with keen and careful observation
For a proper Rainwater Harvesting System we have to be so careful in our observations. For a strong building we need a strong base,for a strong tree there have to be a great root searching for minerals and water. Our thoughts and observation have to be like that root. We have to use all our senses to see where and how the water flows. Grow on looking what works and also fix which is not working.
2. Start from the mountain, so you reach the ocean.
Rainwater Harvesting starts from the rooftop analysing and Conserving from the top level. We know water starts it’s journey from mountain as a river and it reaches ocean. So for a pure water storage, start with collection of water from the top [ rooftop, top floors]. It makes our collection and filtration easy because of less volume and velocity of water and also we can control its distribution.
3. A simple and humble start.
Rainwater Harvesting needs to be small scale so ot will be more effective Work and concentrate on small scale. Small strategies are more effective when we are trying to infiltrate water into the soil. We can build and repair it easily.
4. Hold the hand, hug tight, let it be with us !
Make Rainwater stick to the ground. Give time to infiltrate to the soil. Don’t let water run off the ground. When it rains hold it, encourage it to stick around so it will hangout and infiltrate into the soil. That’s how it works, right!
5. Overactive is proactive !
Let Rainwater to overflow through a specific route so it leads to good conservation. Let water be over active. Let make a route for the overflow of water, so when it rains heavy use the overflow as a resource. Easy !
6. Make invisible the visible
Groundwater Recharging leads to growth of vegetation. When we harvest water, when we let it infiltrate into soil, pave life to vegetation. This vegetation gradually create a living sponge in soil. So like we hold, it also hold water tight.
7. One shot, so many birds
Use Rainwater for various purposes. Make your water harvesting to do more. Pave way for vegetation. Plantings to cool buildings in summer. Vegetation to provide food. Just remember water harvesting is just a start.
8. Updations, yeah it matters !
For a sustainable Rainwater Harvesting System proper checking in proper intervals plays essential role.
Smartphone is an essential thing for our developed living. We know how it works and how it’s software updates. Like it provides software updates, we have to check our strategy, our harvesting system and we have to bring the updations we need. The consistent care makes sustainable growth !
Rainwater Harvesting Kerala Government Building Rules.
Rainwater Harvesting and Filtering is an essential process to prevent water scarcity in our future. We have the responsibility to secure our future with freshwater. It’s our duty to hand over the pure water resources to our next generation.
As per the Kerala Government’s amendment , houses constructed under 300 square feet or on less than 5 cents of land need not construct a rainwater harvesting system . But for well recharging and water conservation it would be a great thing if you can do it.
I. By considering this new amendment of Kerala Government rainwater harvesting rules, it is mandatory to provide rainwater harvesting arrangements to all new building constructions for the following occupancies.
Category A1 : Residential [ with floor area of 100 sq.m or more and plot area of 200 sq.m or more. ]
Category A2 : Special Residential
Category B : Educational
Category C : Medical/Hospital
Category D : Assembly
Category E : Office/Business
Category F1 : Industrials like workshops, laboratories, dry cleaning, gas plants, diaries/food processing unit and any other occupancies notified by the Government time to time.
Category F2 : Industrials like automobile wash stall, automobile service stations, service garages. Provided that floor area to be considered shall be the total floor area in all floors.
II. The components of workable rooftop rainwater harvesting arrangements shall include
• Roof catchment area
• Roof Gutters
• Down pipe and first flush pipe arrangement.
• Rainwater Harvesting Filter unit
• Storage tank/ well with provision for drawing water and spillover.
III. The capacity of water per category is termed as follows
• Category A1 and A2 : 25 litres/sq.m
• Category B, C, D, E and F1 : 50 litres/ sq.m
• Category F2 : 25 litres/sq.m
IV. Artificial Groundwater Recharging arrangements shall include
• Roof catchment area
• Roof gutters
• Down pipe
• Rainwater Harvesting Filter unit
• Recharge well/ Percolation pit
V. The owner(s) / occupier(s) shall maintain these arrangements in healthy working condition. Shall check the working in proper intervals and have to apply needed developments.
VI. As per the Kerala Government Rainwater Harvesting rules , in exceptional cases such as water logging or impermeable subsoil conditions to considerable depths municipality may exempt construction from the mandatory ground water arrangements.
Government Subsidies and Projects on Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Groundwater Recharging.
Both the Central and State governments are so concerned about rainwater harvesting and groundwater Recharging thus to build a secure nation with freshwater availability.
In Central level, Central Ground Water Board [ CGWB ] under the Ministry of Water Resources carries out several missions and projects in various parts of country in co-ordination with State Government and user groups. With several schemes, recharge projects were taken in areas having water scarcity, surplus monsoon runoff and sufficient subsurface storage space, coastal areas affected by seawater ingress and areas of ground water pollution.
In State level under the authority of Panchayath/ municipality/cooperation several schemes are implemented and several subsidies for Rainwater Harvesting and Groundwater Recharging has provided.
The projects and schemes may vary according to the Government and other circumstances. At the time of construction of Rainwater Harvesting and Groundwater Recharging you can do enquiry in nearest Panchayath/municipality and can gather all the informations and can ensure subsidies as per scheme and projects carrying out.
Traditional Rainwater Harvesting Filtering Method
From the start of civilizations itself, we humans started Rainwater Harvesting. As we know, civilizations are flourished along river banks due to the availability of plenty of water resouy. Our forefathers thought about future and not just depending on the plenty amount of water they used to do rainwater harvesting, to meet future need when there is less rainfall.
Time changed, civilizations changed, with the same motive of collecting rainwater, several different techniques came used by our forefathers. And it used to filterate water into soil or collecting it by filtering the impurities.
One of the traditional technique is building ‘ naalukettu ‘ in the middle of the house. This type of architecture is most popular in South Indian regions. It is a way of building house and middle portion or any portion will be without roof. And it won’t be floored, like it’s straight ground with soil or little rocks. This is so beautiful to see and it is a blissful view at the time of raining. There may be a ‘ thulasithara ‘. In the middle of the ‘ naalukettu ‘ . This way of building house let water to infiltrate to the soil thus underground water level is well maintained. As our architecture style changed this mode of building house got faded little by little. Nowadays it’s so rare to see a new house with ‘ naalukettu ‘.
Filtering and collecting rainwater using ‘ mundu ‘ or ‘ saree ‘ is an another way of rainwater harvesting and it’s less economical and effortless. It’s done by tying a ‘ mundu ‘ or ‘ saree ‘ or a big sheet of cloth in an opened space to four supporting stands/trees. Then it acts as a sieve. When it rains water gets oozed through the tied cloth and it collected using a bucket or a tank. In this traditional techniques impurities were removed upto a limit. Still it have some disadvantages. It’s not that effective as it covers only a smaller area. Also removing all hazardous impurities is not possible as cloth can get dirty easily.
There are other traditional methods which are not that popular and also it holds scientific drawbacks when comes to filtering and purity.
Another method of filtering is made with use of about 80kg of sand and coal accordingly. This is so effort needed as cleaning this periodically is so hard. The difficulty in maintaince make it less effective gradually. Now technology grown, and we can replace all these traditional techniques using rainwater harvesting filters, which is scientifically beneficial and more effective.